• Vitamins/minerals
  • Protein
  • Caffeine
  • Creatine products


  • Vitamins
    • Vitamins do not provide energy directly but catalyses the process of absorbing nutrients that provide energy.
    • Assists in functions including release of energy, regulation of metabolic pathways and building tissues.
    • Vitamin supplements are provided in specific cases and not required for everybody to intake.
    • Harmful for the body if taken in excessive amounts.
  • Minerals
    • Inorganic supplements that play a role in homeostasis and facilitating physiological processes by forming salts that conduct electrical energy.
    • Most common mineral deficiency experienced by athletes are iron and calcium deficiency.
    • Iron is required for biosynthesis of red blood cells as weIl as haemoglobin. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia.
    • Calcium is an important element in bone construction. Calcium deficiency causes a disease called osteoporosis that makes bones become weak and brittle.


  • Essential for growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues.
  • Found in abundance in normal diet supplements, therefore, extra supplements aren’t necessary.
  • Should be consumed in an adequate amount like other nutrient sources, as excessive protein accumulation in the body can lead to liver and kidney diseases.


  • A stimulant of the Central Nervous System that makes it agile.
  • Caffeine facilitates fat mobilisation that makes it a usable energy source. This spares glycogen from being used up. This is why caffeine has its benefits for endurance athletes.
  • Helps minimize fatigue and increase concentration for a period of time.
  • Excessive intake of caffeine should be avoided since it is a diuretic.
  • Caffeine if taken in high amounts in hot and humid conditions can cause dehydration.

Creatine Products

  • Obtained from meat sources and stored in muscles.
  • Plays role in the resynthesis of ATP in the alactacid system.
  • Helps in achieving muscle hypertrophy with training.