Elements to be Considered When Designing a Training Session

Elements To Be Considered When Designing a Training Session

  • Health and safety considerations
  • Providing an overview of the session to athletes (goal-specific)
  • Warm up and cool down
  • Skill instruction and practice
  • Conditioning
  • Evaluation

Health and Safety Considerations

  • The well-being of athletes should be of the highest concern.
  • Individual injuries can be prevented through:
    • Proper warm-up, stretching and cool down sessions
    • Gradual increase in intensity of training
    • Protective gear and equipments
    • Proper recovery phase
  • Authorities should perform regular maintenance of playing fields and indoor courts and arenas to remove hazardous and harmful substances.

Providing an Overview of the Session to Athletes

  • Athletes need to be clear on the goals and targets they need to achieve.
  • Overview sessions are brief but detailed and specific.
  • When athletes are given an overview session, they are aware of their trainer/coach’s thoughts for that particular session and what performance indicators they are going to track.

Warm Up and Cool Down

  • Warm-up sessions are conducted to give athletes a minor head start for major training reps that follow throughout the routine.
  • Includes activities that involve light body movements (burpees, jogging) but can raise and increase body temperature and stimulate the cardiorespiratory system.
  • A cool down session follows a warm up session as a window for recovery.
  • Cool down sessions last for 10-15 minutes.
  • The goal on complementary warm up and cool down sessions is to minimise stiffness, soreness and disperse lactic acid.

Skill Instruction and Practice

  • Should be on-point, specific and detailed where necessary.
  • Should include demo sessions for better comprehension, following a practice session.
  • Usually, complex skills are broken down into small parts for easier demonstration and understanding by learners.
  • Learners should not be overwhelmed with too much information to process within a short period of learning.


  • Preparing the body to fit into the mould of a sport.
  • Requirements and fitness measures differ from sport to sport.
  • Mostly carried out during the pre-season training phase.
  • Sports that run for longer seasons require athletes to be reconditioned.
  • Time and intensity of training routine is vital since any wrong decision could risk the athlete being injured.


  • Should take place at the end of training sessions.
  • The feedback should be two ways where both the athletes and the coach can evaluate each other and ask questions.
  • Evaluation of one training session can give insights on aspects that can be improved in the next training sessions.